God cursed woman for several reasons. He cursed her because He promised that in the day that she ate of the tree, she would surely die (Gen 2:17), and He kept His promise. She died before she was one day old where a day is a thousand years (II Pet 3:8). She died one week after Adam and was thus 930 (Gen 5:5) earth years old when she died according to extracanonical sources and was thus less than one divine day in age when she died.
God also cursed her in her primary role of reproduction, for death had been decreed upon Adam (Gen 2:17). Therefore it was fitting that the woman’s role of bringing life into the world should be in pain.
A third reason for woman being cursed was that the woman’s pain in childbirth is a figure of what God is doing in this world. God brings forth His children through the labour of this earth (Isa 66:8), but it is through pain and suffering that they are brought forth. The suffering of woman in childbirth is a figure of the suffering God’s people undergo in this life before the new life is brought forth in the world to come (Heb 10:1). God promises that even though we travail in this life that He will provide strength to bring forth (Isa 66:9). God will bring forth His everlasting nation in its time (Isa 66:10-14). He will provide strength (II Thes 1:7-10) in the travail of the earth to bring forth the eternal peaceful nation (Isa 9:5-7) of God.